Answer the following questions to see who you should vote for in the 2019 Mackellar House of Representatives election.
Currently, asylum seekers who arrive in Australia by boat are denied immigration status. If they are genuine refugees they are resettled in Papua New Guinea and if they are not genuine refugees they are sent back to their originating country or a safe third country other than Australia. This issue is currently the highest ranked "most important" issue of the election. <a target="_blank" href="http://www.immi.gov.au/visas/humanitarian/novisa/regional-arrangements.pdf">Learn more</a> or
In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.
382,000 Muslims live in Australia (2% of the population.) Muslim immigration into Australia escalated in the 1970s when tens of thousands of Muslims fled the Lebanese civil war. In September 2015 the federal government announced that Australia would accept 12,000 Syrian refugees Proponents argue that Australia has a duty to join its allies in Europe and accept at least 12,000 refugees. Opponents argue that Australia should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into its borders.
Since 2007, anyone applying for Australian citizenship has had to take a test on their new country's history, politics, and values. The 45 minutes test is only given in English and contains 20 multiple choice questions which are drawn randomly from a pool of 200 confidential questions. The material is drawn from the official guide "Our common bond" published by the Australian Government department of Immigration and Citizenship.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. In 2016 the Migration Council announced a proposal where students trained at US and UK universities and colleges could apply for work visas in Australia. The students are allowed to stay up to four years on temporary visas and then apply for permanent citizenship. The Migration Council estimates this will add 1.6 trillion to the country’s gross domestic product through 2050. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
Gay marriage, also known as same-sex marriage, is the marriage between two people of the same sex. The Australian government outlawed same-sex marriage when it passed the Marriage Act of 1961. The act stated that the government would not recognise same-sex marriages, traditional Aboriginal marriages or polygamous marriages. In 2016 the leaders of Australia’s major political parties voiced their support for legalizing same-sex marriage though a formal bill has yet to be introduced.
Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. Abortion is legal in Australia in every state except for Queensland and New South Wales. Abortion is legal in every state if it is needed to protect the life of the mother.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.
Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. In 2014 the Austrlian Parliament briefly debated banning women from wearing niqabs in public places. The proposal was defeated. The controversial plan to make Muslim women wearing burqas and the niqab sit in glassed enclosures at Parliament House, which has now been dumped, was put in place without any prior advice from security agencies. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.
In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. In 2016 23.6% of corporate boards in Australia appointed women to fill board ships. There are currently no laws in Australia requiring boards to fill seats with women directors. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.
The death penalty or capital punishment is the punishment by death for a crime. Currently 58 countries worldwide allow the death penalty (including the U.S.) while 97 countries have outlawed it.
In 2014, the NSW government proposed closing bars at 1:30AM to new patrons and serving the last drink at 3AM. The proposal was meant to curb late night alcohol fueled violence outside of bars and restaurants. Proponents argue that similar laws enacted in Newcastle in 2008 resulted in a 36% decline of assaults. Opponents, including the bar and restaurant industries, argue that the laws will hurt their businesses and cause them to fire employees.
In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
Australia has introduced an 18 week paid parental leave scheme which is publicly funded and provides the federal minimum wage (currently A$596.78 per week) rather than a percentage of the primary caregiver's salary. It is not be available to families where the primary caregiver has an annual salary above $150,000 per annum. <a target="_blank" href="http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/parental-leave-pay">Learn more</a> or
Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.
In 2013 63 women entered combat roles in the Australian military after the army, navy and air force lifted gender restrictions. Prior to 2013 women had been banned from roles in combat units including tanks, special forces and infantry.
The Safe Schools Coalition is a group of organizations which promotes the acceptance of same sex attracted, intersex and gender diverse students. In 2016 the Turnbull government proposed cutting funding to the program and restricting it to secondary schools. Opponents of the program argue that parts of the group’s curriculum, including teaching 7 year olds to imagine they attracted to the same sex, are inappropriate. Proponents of the program, including the Green party, argue that between 1 and 2% of all students identify as gender diverse and the curriculum helps prevent bullying.
Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Euthanasia is currently illegal in Australia. In 1995 the Northern Territory passed a bill legalizing euthanasia but it was overturned by the federal government in 1998 under the Australian Capital Territory Act.
In 2015 Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced that parents would no longer receive welfare payments if their children were not vaccinated. People who object to vaccines for religious purposes can continue to receive payments if they are affiliated with a religious group whose governing body has a formally registered objection recognised by the federal government. 97% of children in Australia are vaccinated.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Australia currently has no nuclear facilities generating electricity. Australia's extensive, low-cost coal and natural gas reserves have historically been used as strong arguments for avoiding nuclear power. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.
In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.
The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.
A tax return is a document which states how much income an individual or entity reported to the government. In Australia these documents are considered private and are not released to the public. The Australian Election Commission does not require individuals standing as a candidate to release them. In Sweden, Norway and Finland citizen’s and candidate’s tax records are considered public information and are published on the internet.
In August 2015, Prime Minister Tony Abbott reversed a ban on the import of the A110 lever-action shotgun. This reversed a six-month ban of the gun that the government had enacted in July 2015. Gun rights advocates argue that the gun should not be banned since it is not semi-automatic and widely used by law-abiding hunters and farmers. Anti-gun activists of the gun argue that it is too similar to a semi-automatic weapon since a modified version can fire eleven rounds in eleven seconds and lifting the ban could lead to mass shootings.
Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).
Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. People service sentences of five years or more are not allowed to vote while they are in jail. Disenfranchisement does not continue after release from jail/prison. The Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 denied the franchise to vote to anyone 'attainted of treason, or who had been convicted and is under sentence or subject to be sentenced for any offence, punishable by imprisonment for one year or longer.' In 1995 the act was relaxed to include only people who are serving prison sentences of more than five years.
Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored vehicles, assault rifles, flashbang grenades, sniper rifles, and SWAT teams. Proponents argue that this equipment increases officers’ safety and enables them to better protect the public and other first responders. Opponents argue that police forces which received military equipment were more likely to have violent encounters with the public.
Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. In 2018 18.4% of prisoners in Australia were held in private prisons. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.
In October 2015, Education Minister Simon Birmingham revealed a proposal that would cut funding to universities and deregulate the fees that they charge students. The Parliamentary Budget Office estimated that tuition fees would increase by 40% if universities were allowed to set them without government regulation. Proponents, including Mr. Birmingham, argue that the cost of university funding has grown at twice the rate of the economy since 2009. Opponents argue that the PBO’s estimate of 40% is too low and tuition fees will easily double or triple if the government ceases to regulate them.
In 2016, Prime Minster Turnbull suggested that education funding should shift from the federal government to the states if they are able to raise more revenue under his proposed tax plan. The plan was opposed by the Labor and Green parties who argued that it would abandon the need-based funding reforms put in place after the Gonski report was released in 2012. Without federal funding, they argued, states with economically disadvantaged students would fall further behind. Proponent argue that the Department of Education is too large and states would do a better job of managing schools.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Australia 30% of high school students are enrolled in private schools. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since 2010, the government has tested an initiative in Western Australia called the Independent Public School (IPS) Initiative. The federal government has shown interest in rolling out the IPS initiative nationwide.
Global warming, or climate change, is an increase in the earth’s atmospheric temperature since the late nineteenth century. In politics, the debate over global warming is centered on whether this increase in temperature is due to greenhouse gas emissions or is the result of a natural pattern in the earth’s temperature. Australia is currently looking to reduce emissions to 26-28% on 2005 levels by 2030.
In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.
Australia has large reserves of coal seam gas, especially in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, while large shale gas deposits exist across the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. CSG is currently being extracted from the Bowen and Surat Basins in Queensland and the Camden Valley in New South Wales, with numerous exploration wells across the Liverpool Plains and Hunter Valley. To extract the gas, water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure in a process known as "fracking."
Australia is currently the world’s largest exporter of Uranium and currently exports 31% of the global supply. Australia’s current policy is to only sell uranium to countries which have signed the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Fracking is the process of extracting oil or natural gas from shale rock. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which fractures the rock and allows the oil or gas to flow out to a well. While fracking has significantly boosted oil production, there are environmental concerns that the process is contaminating groundwater. Critics of fracking say it pollutes underground water supplies with chemicals, releases methane gas into the atmosphere, and can cause seismic activity. Proponents of fracking say it will drop oil and gas prices in Spain and lead to energy independence.
In November 2018 the online e-commerce company Amazon announced it would be building a second headquarters in New York City and Arlington, VA. The announcement came a year after the company announced it would accept proposals from any North American city who wanted to host the headquarters. Amazon said the company could invest over $5 billion and the offices would create up to 50,000 high paying jobs. More than 200 cities applied and offered Amazon millions of dollars in economic incentives and tax breaks. For the New York City headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $2.8 billion in tax credits and construction grants. For the Arlington, VA headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $500 million in tax breaks. Opponents argue that governments should spend the tax revenue on public projects instead and that the federal government should pass laws banning tax incentives. The European Union has strict laws which prevent member cities from bidding against each other with state aid (tax incentives) in an effort to lure private companies. Proponents argue that the jobs and tax revenue created by the companies eventually offset the cost of any awarded incentives.
Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Australia already allows the commercial growing of genetically engineered canola and cotton, making us one of only a handful of countries that commercially grow GE crops. GE canola was commercially released in NSW and Victoria in 2008.
Disposing of low-level nuclear waste, mostly from medical treatment, has become an important issue. In 2009, the Australian government received a consultant’s report that examined Muckaty Station as one of four possible sites for a nuclear waste facility in the Northern Territory. Land owners near Muckaty station opposed the plan in fear that the dumped waste would destroy their lands and environment.
In 2015 the Australian government Thursday blocked the sale of a large portfolio of farmland to Chinese investors on national interest grounds. Four separate groups linked to Chinese-based investors were denied from bidding on properties that amounted to 2.5% of Australia’s farming land owned by S. Kidman & Co. The proposed sale had become a test case for how the country balances concerns over foreign ownership with the need for foreign investment in an economy that has slowed sharply due to the collapse in commodity prices this year.
Recreational use of illicit drugs including marijuana, cocaine and heroin is currently illegal in Australia. In 1985, the federal and state governments adopted a National Drug Strategy which included a pragmatic mixture of prohibition and a stated objective of harm reduction. Between 1998 and 2007 overall illicit drug use declined close to 40%. Amphetamines use declined by 38%; cannabis use fell by close to 50%; and use of heroin dropped by an impressive 75%. In February 2016 parliament amended the Narcotics Drugs Act, and created a national licensing scheme for the controlled cultivation and testing of medical cannabis.