Answer the following questions to see who you should vote for in the 2019 Granville Legislative Assembly election.
The Safe Schools Coalition is a group of organizations which promotes the acceptance of same sex attracted, intersex and gender diverse students. In 2016 the Turnbull government proposed cutting funding to the program and restricting it to secondary schools. Opponents of the program argue that parts of the group’s curriculum, including teaching 7 year olds to imagine they attracted to the same sex, are inappropriate. Proponents of the program, including the Green party, argue that between 1 and 2% of all students identify as gender diverse and the curriculum helps prevent bullying.
Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. Abortion is legal in Australia in every state except for Queensland and New South Wales. Abortion is legal in every state if it is needed to protect the life of the mother.
Gay marriage, also known as same-sex marriage, is the marriage between two people of the same sex. The Australian government outlawed same-sex marriage when it passed the Marriage Act of 1961. The act stated that the government would not recognise same-sex marriages, traditional Aboriginal marriages or polygamous marriages. In 2016 the leaders of Australia’s major political parties voiced their support for legalizing same-sex marriage though a formal bill has yet to be introduced.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.
In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.
Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Euthanasia is currently illegal in Australia. In 1995 the Northern Territory passed a bill legalizing euthanasia but it was overturned by the federal government in 1998 under the Australian Capital Territory Act.
Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.
In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. In 2016 23.6% of corporate boards in Australia appointed women to fill board ships. There are currently no laws in Australia requiring boards to fill seats with women directors. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.
The death penalty or capital punishment is the punishment by death for a crime. Currently 58 countries worldwide allow the death penalty (including the U.S.) while 97 countries have outlawed it.
Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. In 2014 the Austrlian Parliament briefly debated banning women from wearing niqabs in public places. The proposal was defeated. The controversial plan to make Muslim women wearing burqas and the niqab sit in glassed enclosures at Parliament House, which has now been dumped, was put in place without any prior advice from security agencies. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.
In 2014, the NSW government proposed closing bars at 1:30AM to new patrons and serving the last drink at 3AM. The proposal was meant to curb late night alcohol fueled violence outside of bars and restaurants. Proponents argue that similar laws enacted in Newcastle in 2008 resulted in a 36% decline of assaults. Opponents, including the bar and restaurant industries, argue that the laws will hurt their businesses and cause them to fire employees.
In 2013 63 women entered combat roles in the Australian military after the army, navy and air force lifted gender restrictions. Prior to 2013 women had been banned from roles in combat units including tanks, special forces and infantry.
Australia has introduced an 18 week paid parental leave scheme which is publicly funded and provides the federal minimum wage (currently A$596.78 per week) rather than a percentage of the primary caregiver's salary. It is not be available to families where the primary caregiver has an annual salary above $150,000 per annum. <a target="_blank" href="http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/parental-leave-pay">Learn more</a> or
Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.
In October 2015, Education Minister Simon Birmingham revealed a proposal that would cut funding to universities and deregulate the fees that they charge students. The Parliamentary Budget Office estimated that tuition fees would increase by 40% if universities were allowed to set them without government regulation. Proponents, including Mr. Birmingham, argue that the cost of university funding has grown at twice the rate of the economy since 2009. Opponents argue that the PBO’s estimate of 40% is too low and tuition fees will easily double or triple if the government ceases to regulate them.
In 2016, Prime Minster Turnbull suggested that education funding should shift from the federal government to the states if they are able to raise more revenue under his proposed tax plan. The plan was opposed by the Labor and Green parties who argued that it would abandon the need-based funding reforms put in place after the Gonski report was released in 2012. Without federal funding, they argued, states with economically disadvantaged students would fall further behind. Proponent argue that the Department of Education is too large and states would do a better job of managing schools.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Australia 30% of high school students are enrolled in private schools. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since 2010, the government has tested an initiative in Western Australia called the Independent Public School (IPS) Initiative. The federal government has shown interest in rolling out the IPS initiative nationwide.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Australia currently has no nuclear facilities generating electricity. Australia's extensive, low-cost coal and natural gas reserves have historically been used as strong arguments for avoiding nuclear power. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.
In 2015 Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced that parents would no longer receive welfare payments if their children were not vaccinated. People who object to vaccines for religious purposes can continue to receive payments if they are affiliated with a religious group whose governing body has a formally registered objection recognised by the federal government. 97% of children in Australia are vaccinated.
Australia is a constitutional monarchy, with Britain's Queen Elizabeth as head of state. The role is largely ceremonial, but the monarch does have the power to dissolve parliament, as in 1975, when Queen Elizabeth sacked the government. In 1999 a referendum to end the monarchy was defeated by voters 55%-45%.
The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) has the power to enforce content restrictions on Internet content hosted within Australia, and maintain a "black-list" of overseas websites which is then provided for use in filtering software. The restrictions focus primarily on child pornography, sexual violence, and other illegal activities, compiled as a result of a consumer complaints process. In 2009, the OpenNet Initiative found no evidence of Internet filtering in Australia, but due to legal restrictions ONI does not test for filtering of child pornography.
Recreational use of illicit drugs including marijuana, cocaine and heroin is currently illegal in Australia. In 1985, the federal and state governments adopted a National Drug Strategy which included a pragmatic mixture of prohibition and a stated objective of harm reduction. Between 1998 and 2007 overall illicit drug use declined close to 40%. Amphetamines use declined by 38%; cannabis use fell by close to 50%; and use of heroin dropped by an impressive 75%. In February 2016 parliament amended the Narcotics Drugs Act, and created a national licensing scheme for the controlled cultivation and testing of medical cannabis.
Candidate quotas is a system in which political parties are penalised for not running a certain percentage of women candidates for office. In 2012 legislation was introduced which would have required parties to field at least 30% women candidates at the next election and 40% at the election after that. If a party failed to meet these thresholds they would lose half of their public funding. Women currently make up 24.7% of the lower house and 38.2% in the upper house. Of 189 developed countries Australia currently ranks 46 out of 189. Proponents of quotas argue that they help promote gender diversity in government and are responsible for a 20% increase in the proportion of women in parliaments worldwide.
The Australian constitution does not currently reference Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The federal government created a council to explore holding a referendum on the subject in May 2017. Proponents, including Prime Minister Turnbull, argue that the original inhabitants of Australia should be recognized in the constitution and all racial elements should be removed. Opponents argue that the government resources should not be wasted on holding a referendum.
Currently the Australian government permits live export trade. The ESCAS welfare assurance system was recently introduced to provide independent oversight on Animal Welfare.
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.
In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.
Labor, the Coalition and the Greens support the concept of high-speed rail linking Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, as well as regional areas in between. The parties disagree on whether the project should be a current priority and whether it should be financed federally or by the states.
In 2015, Treasury Secretary John Fraser warned that Australia’s largest cities were experiencing a housing bubble. He warned that the major cause of the bubble was low interest rates and access to easy financing for real estate loans. In 2016 the average price of a home in Sydney passed $1M. Former Prime Minister Tony Abbott argued that increasing house prices in cities were a sign that the economy was healthy.
A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. In Australia there are no term limits for Prime Ministers, Senators or MPs.
In 2014 the Australian government passed the National Security Amendment bill which granted new surveillance powers to Australia's spy agency, ASIO. Under the legislation, which passed the lower house with support from the main opposition Labor Party, anyone disclosing information about "special intelligence operations" could face a decade in prison.
In 2015, the Turnbull government proposed allowing health insurers to cover GP visits and common tests including X-rays. The proposal would transform the Australian healthcare single-payer system into a higher cost US style system. Opponents argue that the system would encourage doctors to charge their patients higher rates. Proponents argue that this will reduce the government’s healthcare costs.
In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”
On February 24, 2016 the Australian parliament passed an amendment to the Narcotic Drugs Act which legalised medical marijuana. The amendment permits patients with a prescription from a doctor to posses and use medical cannabis. The cannabis must be grown in Australia under the supervision of the local government. Analysts predict that marijuana will be available to patients beginning in 2017.
In September 2021 Italy became the first European Country to make COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers. By the end of the same month Canada, the United States, Australia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan all announced similar vaccine mandates. Proponents of the mandate argue that these mandates are the only way to end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Opponents cite evidence that people who already have natural immunity are at heightened risk of vaccine side effects caused by an augmented inflammatory response.
Private health insurance funds private health and is provided by a number of private health insurance organisations, called health funds. The Coalition under Tony pledged to privatise Medibank if it won the 2010 election but was again defeated by Labor. Privatisation was again a Coalition policy for the 2013 election, which the Coalition won.
In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.
The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.
Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Australian hospitals are currently allocated funding on a fixed price for each treatment they provide. Proponents see this plan as making hospitals more efficient and providing an equal level of care. Opponents believe it causes hospitals to offer more expensive treatments in order to maximize their profits.
The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) consumes around 14 percent of total government health care expenditures and has grown substantially in both range of drugs covered, and expenditure since it was first introduced in 1950. Proponents of drug price regulation argue that drug makers raise prices to benefit the value of their stock and invest little of their profits in the development and research of new drugs. Opponents of regulation argue that consumers rely on drug companies to develop new drugs and limiting prices will prevent new lifesaving drugs from being developed.
Since 2009 federal funding for mental health has increased over the past seven years by $1.5 billion. Australia spends 8% of it’s health budget on mental health services. This is less than the majority of developed countries who spend between 12% and 18% of their budget on mental health. Proponents of more spending on mental health point out that schizophrenia is a major problem in Australia’s Aboriginal communities where it is three times higher than in cities.
In 2019, NSW Labor party Michael Daley proposed a tax on luxury cars worth more than $100,000 and yachts worth more than $200,000 to raise $240 million. The additional tax review would be used to increase funding for nurse staffing. The proposal would insure one nurse for every three patients in major emergency departments, one midwife for every three mothers in postnatal wards and one nurse to each patient in adult and pediatric resuscitation beds.
In 2012 the government implemented a dental plan that would allocate $4 billion in funding through 2018. The program will provide dental services to children, Medicare recipients and low income adults who live in rural areas.
In an effort to end the COVID19 pandemic many governments imposed vaccine mandates on people who wish to enter private businesses. Politicians who supported the mandates argued that it would stop the spread of CV19 and encourage people to get vaccinated against it. Opponents argue that vaccination status is private health information and people should not be forced to share it. Proponents argue that unvaccinated individuals are responsible for spreading CV19 and prolonging the pandemic.
Disposing of low-level nuclear waste, mostly from medical treatment, has become an important issue. In 2009, the Australian government received a consultant’s report that examined Muckaty Station as one of four possible sites for a nuclear waste facility in the Northern Territory. Land owners near Muckaty station opposed the plan in fear that the dumped waste would destroy their lands and environment.