Should Australia accept asylum-seeking boat immigrants?

Currently, asylum seekers who arrive in Australia by boat are denied immigration status. If they are genuine refugees they are resettled in Papua New Guinea and if they are not genuine refugees they are sent back to their originating country or a safe third country other than Australia. This issue is currently the highest ranked "most important" issue of the election.&nbsp;&nbsp;<a target="_blank" href="http://www.immi.gov.au/visas/humanitarian/novisa/regional-arrangements.pdf">Learn&nbsp;more</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;or

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Should immigrants be required to learn English?

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Should Muslim immigrants be banned from entering the country until the government improves its ability to screen out potential terrorists?

382,000 Muslims live in Australia (2% of the population.) Muslim immigration into Australia escalated in the 1970s when tens of thousands of Muslims fled the Lebanese civil war. In September 2015 the federal government announced that Australia would accept 12,000 Syrian refugees Proponents argue that Australia has a duty to join its allies in Europe and accept at least 12,000 refugees. Opponents argue that Australia should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into its borders.

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Should immigrants be deported if they commit a serious crime?

In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.

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Should immigrants to Australia be allowed to hold dual citizenship status?

Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.

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Should Australia increase or decrease the amount of temporary work visas given to high-skilled immigrant workers?

Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. In 2016 the Migration Council announced a proposal where students trained at US and UK universities and colleges could apply for work visas in Australia. The students are allowed to stay up to four years on temporary visas and then apply for permanent citizenship. The Migration Council estimates this will add 1.6 trillion to the country’s gross domestic product through 2050. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.

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Should immigrants be required to pass a citizenship test to demonstrate a basic understanding of our country’s language, history, and government?

Since 2007, anyone applying for Australian citizenship has had to take a test on their new country's history, politics, and values. The 45 minutes test is only given in English and contains 20 multiple choice questions which are drawn randomly from a pool of 200 confidential questions. The material is drawn from the official guide "Our common bond" published by the Australian Government department of Immigration and Citizenship.

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Should homeless individuals, that have refused available shelter or housing, be allowed to sleep or encamp on public property?

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Do you support the use of nuclear energy?

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Australia currently has no nuclear facilities generating electricity. Australia's extensive, low-cost coal and natural gas reserves have historically been used as strong arguments for avoiding nuclear power. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.

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Should the government require children to be vaccinated for preventable diseases?

In 2015 Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced that parents would no longer receive welfare payments if their children were not vaccinated. People who object to vaccines for religious purposes can continue to receive payments if they are affiliated with a religious group whose governing body has a formally registered objection recognised by the federal government. 97% of children in Australia are vaccinated.

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What is your stance on abortion?

Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. Abortion is legal in Australia in every state except for Queensland and New South Wales. Abortion is legal in every state if it is needed to protect the life of the mother.

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Should the government continue to fund the Safe Schools Coalition?

The Safe Schools Coalition is a group of organizations which promotes the acceptance of same sex attracted, intersex and gender diverse students. In 2016 the Turnbull government proposed cutting funding to the program and restricting it to secondary schools. Opponents of the program argue that parts of the group’s curriculum, including teaching 7 year olds to imagine they attracted to the same sex, are inappropriate. Proponents of the program, including the Green party, argue that between 1 and 2% of all students identify as gender diverse and the curriculum helps prevent bullying.

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Do you support the legalisation of same sex marriage?

Gay marriage, also known as same-sex marriage, is the marriage between two people of the same sex. The Australian government outlawed same-sex marriage when it passed the Marriage Act of 1961. The act stated that the government would not recognise same-sex marriages, traditional Aboriginal marriages or polygamous marriages. In 2016 the leaders of Australia’s major political parties voiced their support for legalizing same-sex marriage though a formal bill has yet to be introduced.

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Should gay couples have the same adoption rights as straight couples?

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.

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Should people under the age of 18 years old be able to receive gender-transition treatments?

In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.

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Should terminally ill patients be allowed to end their lives via assisted suicide?

Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Euthanasia is currently illegal in Australia. In 1995 the Northern Territory passed a bill legalizing euthanasia but it was overturned by the federal government in 1998 under the Australian Capital Territory Act.

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Should hate speech be protected by freedom of speech laws?

Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.

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Should transgender athletes be allowed to compete against athletes that differ from their assigned sex at birth?

In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.

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Should businesses be required to have women on their board of directors?

In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. In 2016 23.6% of corporate boards in Australia appointed women to fill board ships. There are currently no laws in Australia requiring boards to fill seats with women directors. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.

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Should the death penalty be reinstated?

The death penalty or capital punishment is the punishment by death for a crime. Currently 58 countries worldwide allow the death penalty (including the U.S.) while 97 countries have outlawed it.

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Should women be allowed to wear a Niqāb, or face veil, to civic ceremonies?

Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. In 2014 the Austrlian Parliament briefly debated banning women from wearing niqabs in public places. The proposal was defeated. The controversial plan to make Muslim women wearing burqas and the niqab sit in glassed enclosures at Parliament House, which has now been dumped, was put in place without any prior advice from security agencies. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.

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Do you support lock out laws?

In 2014, the NSW government proposed closing bars at 1:30AM to new patrons and serving the last drink at 3AM. The proposal was meant to curb late night alcohol fueled violence outside of bars and restaurants. Proponents argue that similar laws enacted in Newcastle in 2008 resulted in a 36% decline of assaults. Opponents, including the bar and restaurant industries, argue that the laws will hurt their businesses and cause them to fire employees.

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Should the military allow women to serve in combat roles?

In 2013 63 women entered combat roles in the Australian military after the army, navy and air force lifted gender restrictions. Prior to 2013 women had been banned from roles in combat units including tanks, special forces and infantry.

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Should parental leave payments increase based on the mother's wage?

Australia has introduced an 18 week paid parental leave scheme which is publicly funded and provides the federal minimum wage (currently A$596.78 per week) rather than a percentage of the primary caregiver's salary. It is not be available to families where the primary caregiver has an annual salary above $150,000 per annum.&nbsp;&nbsp;<a target="_blank" href="http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/parental-leave-pay">Learn&nbsp;more</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;or

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Should schools and companies be banned from requiring employees and students to attend diversity training?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should universities set their own fees?

In October 2015, Education Minister Simon Birmingham revealed a proposal that would cut funding to universities and deregulate the fees that they charge students. The Parliamentary Budget Office estimated that tuition fees would increase by 40% if universities were allowed to set them without government regulation. Proponents, including Mr. Birmingham, argue that the cost of university funding has grown at twice the rate of the economy since 2009. Opponents argue that the PBO’s estimate of 40% is too low and tuition fees will easily double or triple if the government ceases to regulate them.

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Should the federal government turn over school funding to the states?

In 2016, Prime Minster Turnbull suggested that education funding should shift from the federal government to the states if they are able to raise more revenue under his proposed tax plan. The plan was opposed by the Labor and Green parties who argued that it would abandon the need-based funding reforms put in place after the Gonski report was released in 2012. Without federal funding, they argued, states with economically disadvantaged students would fall further behind. Proponent argue that the Department of Education is too large and states would do a better job of managing schools.

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Do you support charter schools?

Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Australia 30% of high school students are enrolled in private schools. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since 2010, the government has tested an initiative in Western Australia called the Independent Public School (IPS) Initiative. The federal government has shown interest in rolling out the IPS initiative nationwide.

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Should the government increase spending on public transportation?

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Should the government ban the import of the Adler A110 lever-action shotgun?

In August 2015, Prime Minister Tony Abbott reversed a ban on the import of the A110 lever-action shotgun. This reversed a six-month ban of the gun that the government had enacted in July 2015. Gun rights advocates argue that the gun should not be banned since it is not semi-automatic and widely used by law-abiding hunters and farmers. Anti-gun activists of the gun argue that it is too similar to a semi-automatic weapon since a modified version can fire eleven rounds in eleven seconds and lifting the ban could lead to mass shootings.

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Should funding for local police departments be redirected to social and community based programs?

“Defund the police” is a slogan that supports divesting funds from police departments and reallocating them to non-policing forms of public safety and community support, such as social services, youth services, housing, education, healthcare and other community resources.

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Should police departments be allowed to use military grade equipment?

Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored vehicles, assault rifles, flashbang grenades, sniper rifles, and SWAT teams. Proponents argue that this equipment increases officers’ safety and enables them to better protect the public and other first responders. Opponents argue that police forces which received military equipment were more likely to have violent encounters with the public.

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Should non-violent prisoners be released from jail in order to reduce overcrowding?

Prison overcrowding is a social phenomenon occurring when the demand for space in prisons in a jurisdiction exceeds the capacity for prisoners.The issues associated with prison overcrowding are not new, and have been brewing for many years. During the United States’ War on Drugs, the states were left responsible for solving the prison overcrowding issue with a limited amount of money. Moreover, federal prison populations may increase if states adhere to federal policies, such as mandatory minimum sentences. On the other hand, the Justice Department provides billions of dollars a year for state and local law enforcement to ensure they follow the policies set forth by the federal government concerning U.S. prisons. Prison overcrowding has affected some states more than others, but overall, the risks of overcrowding are substantial and there are solutions to this problem.

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Should convicted criminals have the right to vote?

Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. People service sentences of five years or more are not allowed to vote while they are in jail. Disenfranchisement does not continue after release from jail/prison. The Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 denied the franchise to vote to anyone 'attainted of treason, or who had been convicted and is under sentence or subject to be sentenced for any offence, punishable by imprisonment for one year or longer.' In 1995 the act was relaxed to include only people who are serving prison sentences of more than five years.

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Should the government hire private companies to run prisons?

Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. In 2018 18.4% of prisoners in Australia were held in private prisons. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.

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Should drug traffickers receive the death penalty?

Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).

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Should foreigners, currently residing in Australia, have the right to vote?

In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.

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Should the minimum voting age be lowered?

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Should a politician, who has been formerly convicted of a crime, be allowed to run for office?

The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.

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Should corporations, unions, and non-profit organizations be allowed to donate to political parties?

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Should political candidates be required to release their recent tax returns to the public?

A tax return is a document which states how much income an individual or entity reported to the government. In Australia these documents are considered private and are not released to the public. The Australian Election Commission does not require individuals standing as a candidate to release them. In Sweden, Norway and Finland citizen’s and candidate’s tax records are considered public information and are published on the internet.

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Should political parties receive money from the government?

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Should welfare recipients be tested for drugs?

In 2014 the government denied a proposal to subject welfare recipients to drug testing. Proponents including Liberal-National Party MP George Christensen argued that anyone receiving taxpayer funded benefits should be able to demonstrate that they are drug-free. Opponents, including Greens MP Adam Bandt, argued that if welfare recipients were subject to testing MPs should be as well.

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Should the government raise taxes on the rich?

The top income tax bracket in Australia includes all incomes over $181,000 and is taxed between 30.3% and 45%. Individuals making $180,000 are taxed $65,000 plus $.45 for each $1 earned over $180,000. An individual making more than $500,000 would pay a tax rate of 59% in Australia, 57% in the UK, 60% in the US and 73% in Brazil.

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Should the government make cuts to public spending in order to reduce the national debt?

The 2015 Australian Federal Budget was the eight in a row which contained a budget deficit. The deficit grew 7% to $37.4 billion. A $4.4 billion family aid package, a $5.5 billion small business package and slowing mineral exports were the largest contributors to the increased deficit. The largest cuts were made to foreign aid which decreased by 29% from 2014. Proponents of deficit reduction argue that governments who do not control budget deficits and debt are at risk of losing their ability to borrow money at affordable rates. Opponents of deficit reduction argue that government spending would increase demand for goods and services and help avert a dangerous fall into deflation, a downward spiral in wages and prices that can cripple an economy for years.

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Should Australia raise or lower the tax rate for corporations?

Australia’s corporate tax rate is currently 30%. Due to loopholes and offshore headquarters many companies in Australia pay significantly less with 1/3rd of major corporations paying no taxes at all. Some economists argue that the tax should be abolished in place of higher taxes on certain high earning individuals and stock market transactions.

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Do you support a universal basic income program?

A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.

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Should there be fewer or more restrictions on current welfare benefits?

In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.

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Should the government raise the federal minimum wage?

The federal minimum wage is the lowest wage at which employers may pay their employees. In 2015 the minimum wage increased by 2.5 percent to $16 per week. Proponents of a higher minimum argue that the 2.5% increase in 2015 is not high enough to cover basic costs like healthcare and education which are increasing by 5% a year. Opponents argue that raising the minimum wage will increase unemployment and make it harder for lower income workers to find jobs.

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