Answer the following questions to see who you should vote for in the 2019 Riverina House of Representatives election.
On February 24, 2016 the Australian parliament passed an amendment to the Narcotic Drugs Act which legalised medical marijuana. The amendment permits patients with a prescription from a doctor to posses and use medical cannabis. The cannabis must be grown in Australia under the supervision of the local government. Analysts predict that marijuana will be available to patients beginning in 2017.
In September 2021 Italy became the first European Country to make COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers. By the end of the same month Canada, the United States, Australia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan all announced similar vaccine mandates. Proponents of the mandate argue that these mandates are the only way to end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Opponents cite evidence that people who already have natural immunity are at heightened risk of vaccine side effects caused by an augmented inflammatory response.
Private health insurance funds private health and is provided by a number of private health insurance organisations, called health funds. The Coalition under Tony pledged to privatise Medibank if it won the 2010 election but was again defeated by Labor. Privatisation was again a Coalition policy for the 2013 election, which the Coalition won.
In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.
The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.
Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Australian hospitals are currently allocated funding on a fixed price for each treatment they provide. Proponents see this plan as making hospitals more efficient and providing an equal level of care. Opponents believe it causes hospitals to offer more expensive treatments in order to maximize their profits.
The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) consumes around 14 percent of total government health care expenditures and has grown substantially in both range of drugs covered, and expenditure since it was first introduced in 1950. Proponents of drug price regulation argue that drug makers raise prices to benefit the value of their stock and invest little of their profits in the development and research of new drugs. Opponents of regulation argue that consumers rely on drug companies to develop new drugs and limiting prices will prevent new lifesaving drugs from being developed.
Since 2009 federal funding for mental health has increased over the past seven years by $1.5 billion. Australia spends 8% of it’s health budget on mental health services. This is less than the majority of developed countries who spend between 12% and 18% of their budget on mental health. Proponents of more spending on mental health point out that schizophrenia is a major problem in Australia’s Aboriginal communities where it is three times higher than in cities.
In 2019, NSW Labor party Michael Daley proposed a tax on luxury cars worth more than $100,000 and yachts worth more than $200,000 to raise $240 million. The additional tax review would be used to increase funding for nurse staffing. The proposal would insure one nurse for every three patients in major emergency departments, one midwife for every three mothers in postnatal wards and one nurse to each patient in adult and pediatric resuscitation beds.
In 2012 the government implemented a dental plan that would allocate $4 billion in funding through 2018. The program will provide dental services to children, Medicare recipients and low income adults who live in rural areas.
In an effort to end the COVID19 pandemic many governments imposed vaccine mandates on people who wish to enter private businesses. Politicians who supported the mandates argued that it would stop the spread of CV19 and encourage people to get vaccinated against it. Opponents argue that vaccination status is private health information and people should not be forced to share it. Proponents argue that unvaccinated individuals are responsible for spreading CV19 and prolonging the pandemic.
In 2016 the government expanded section 35 of the Citizenship Act to revoke the citizenship of any Australian who joins a foreign terrorist group. The measure includes Australians with single and dual citizenship and was proposed after several Australian nationals joined ISIS in the Middle East. The previous law revokes citizenship if Australians take up arms with the militaries of ‘enemy states’ but does not cover foreign terrorist organziations. Opponents include human rights groups and constitutional lawyers who argue that the law allows foreign governments to accuse people of terrorism for minor acts including graffiti and sit in protests. Proponents argue that the law is necessary to prevent terrorists re-entering the country.
In 2014 the Australian government cut the Foreign Aid Budget to $4 billion. This represented a 29% cut of the previous year’s budget of $5.6 billion. According to the treasury the funds would be redirected to Defence and national security. Proponents of aid cuts say the funds are better used for domestic programs and anti-terror efforts on behalf of the military. Opponents of the cuts argue that the current reduction is too drastic and Australia should match the higher aid spending of other developed countries like the UK.
Military Service is currently not required in the Australia. The last conflicted requiring National Service was the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 70s.
In February 2016 the government announced that military spending will increase Military spending will grow by $29.9b through 2026. Australia’s military budget is the 12th largest in the world. The 2016 increase will rank Australia 9th amongst world Defence budgets as a percentage of GDP. Proponents of a larger budget argue that it is necessary due to recent disagreements between the US and China in the South China sea. Critics of a larger budget argue that it sets off an unnecessary arms race and will provoke China into creating a larger naval force to offset it.
Japan's current whaling program involves killing up to 1035 whales in the Southern Ocean each year for "science".
In June 2012 Egypt democratically elected its first head of state, Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood. Morsi's term as President lasted less than one year before he was ousted by the Egyptian military in the spring of 2013. Morsi's supporters have since rebelled against the military sending the country into a state of of near civil war.
In December 2015 the Australian and Chinese governments agreed to a bilateral Free Trade agreement. The agreement made 95% of all Australian exports into China tariff-free including agricultural products such as beef and dairy. Opponents of the deal included Unions who argued that it posed the risk of shipping jobs to China since it did not contain any labour market testing requirements. Proponents argue that the deal will grow the economy by giving exporters greater access to the expanding Chinese economy.
In 1970 the US military opened the Pine Gap satellite tracking facility in Alice Springs. The facility employs 800 people and is used to control US spy satellites over the Pacific region. In 2013 Edward Snowden revealed documents which showed Pine Gap being used in the controversial PRISM surveillance program. The program collects personal data from major internet companies.
On February 24 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that began in 2014. The invasion caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with around 7.1 million Ukrainians fleeing the country and a third of the population displaced. It has also caused global food shortages.
In 2016 the North Korean government reported that it had conducted a ground test of a new rocket engine intended to power the first stage of an intercontinental ballistic missile. The Turnbull government condemned the test a threat to "peace and security … in our region and beyond." Opponents of airstrikes argue that the tests are false flags and that the Chinese will prevent the North Korean government from carrying out airstrikes. Proponents of airstrikes argue that North Korea must be stopped before it has the chance to launch a nuclear missile outside into another continent.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
The UN. is an organization of governments founded in 1945 after World War II. The organization's objectives include promoting peace and security, protecting human rights and the environment and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. Recent U.N. interventions include the Sri Lankan civil war in 2009 and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Australia joined the U.N. in 1945 as a founding member nation. Australia is the twelfth largest financial contributor to the UN and contributes $30 million annually.
A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners. Of the 500,000 people receiving pensions in 2015 47% of the wealthier recipients received reduced pensions and 18% lost access to all of their pension payments. 34% of lower income pensioners received an increase in their pension of $30 a fortnight. The pensioners who lost their payments were deemed to have at least $823,000 in assets (this did not include the value of a home).
In 2014 the government denied a proposal to subject welfare recipients to drug testing. Proponents including Liberal-National Party MP George Christensen argued that anyone receiving taxpayer funded benefits should be able to demonstrate that they are drug-free. Opponents, including Greens MP Adam Bandt, argued that if welfare recipients were subject to testing MPs should be as well.
The top income tax bracket in Australia includes all incomes over $181,000 and is taxed between 30.3% and 45%. Individuals making $180,000 are taxed $65,000 plus $.45 for each $1 earned over $180,000. An individual making more than $500,000 would pay a tax rate of 59% in Australia, 57% in the UK, 60% in the US and 73% in Brazil.
The 2015 Australian Federal Budget was the eight in a row which contained a budget deficit. The deficit grew 7% to $37.4 billion. A $4.4 billion family aid package, a $5.5 billion small business package and slowing mineral exports were the largest contributors to the increased deficit. The largest cuts were made to foreign aid which decreased by 29% from 2014. Proponents of deficit reduction argue that governments who do not control budget deficits and debt are at risk of losing their ability to borrow money at affordable rates. Opponents of deficit reduction argue that government spending would increase demand for goods and services and help avert a dangerous fall into deflation, a downward spiral in wages and prices that can cripple an economy for years.
Australia’s corporate tax rate is currently 30%. Due to loopholes and offshore headquarters many companies in Australia pay significantly less with 1/3rd of major corporations paying no taxes at all. Some economists argue that the tax should be abolished in place of higher taxes on certain high earning individuals and stock market transactions.
In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
The federal minimum wage is the lowest wage at which employers may pay their employees. In 2015 the minimum wage increased by 2.5 percent to $16 per week. Proponents of a higher minimum argue that the 2.5% increase in 2015 is not high enough to cover basic costs like healthcare and education which are increasing by 5% a year. Opponents argue that raising the minimum wage will increase unemployment and make it harder for lower income workers to find jobs.
Negative gearing is the practice of using losses on property investments to reduce taxable income. In 2013, approximately 1.3 million Australians used the concession. Data shows that high income earners write off much larger percentages of their taxes than those who earn lower wages. In 2012, surgeons wrote off $4,161 of their taxes using negative gearing while teachers wrote off $327. Proponents, including Malcolm Turnbull, argue that the practice has been part of Australian tax law since 1915 and is not a tax break since the real estate investor is taking a loss to their assets. Opponents argue that the policy disproportionately benefits Australians in high-paying occupations, not those of average incomes, since they are much more likely to own investment properties.
The Australian government has recently passed legislation which means any new CSG or large coal projects potentially linked to water reservoirs will need assessment by an expert committee before being approved.
In June 2016, Malcolm Turnbull proposed a 10 year $50 billion corporate tax cut. If re-elected, Turnbull would reduce the tax rate on companies who earn less than $10 million by 1% to 27.5%. The following year the tax cut would apply to companies who earn less than $25m. Turnbull plans to pay for the cuts by reducing the number of superannuation tax concessions.
Since 1996 Union membership in Australia has dropped from 40% of all workers to 15%. Unions bargain on behalf of workers over wages, benefits, working conditions for their membership. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying activities and electioneering at the state and federal level.
After the 2008 financial crisis The Rudd Government passed two stimulus packages in an effort to revive the Australian economy. The packages were worth more than a combined $50 billion. Mr. Rudd argued that they helped sustain the economy by boosting retail sales and saving tens of thousands of jobs.
In 2014, the EU passed legislation that capped bankers' bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. There are currently no caps on banker's pay in Australia. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on bankers' pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank's costs to rise.
The Minerals Resource Rent Tax came into effect on July 1, 2012. It is a 22.5 per cent tax on the profits of iron ore and coal projects but only applies to profits over $75 million. There have been calls on different sides to both abolish and expand the tax.
The National Broadband Network is currently under construction and will eventually provide fast internet access to a majority of Australians. By July 2016 25% of all homes will have access to the network. 75% of all homes should have access by the fall of 2018. Opponents of the network argue that the project is severely over budget and should be turned over to private companies. Proponents of the network argue that fast internet at a low cost is necessary to grow the Australian economy.
An offshore (or foreign) bank account is a bank account you have outside of your country of residence. The benefits of an offshore bank account include tax reduction, privacy, currency diversification, asset protection from lawsuits, and reducing your political risk. In April 2017, Wikileaks released 11.5 million confidential documents, known as the Panama Papers, which provided detailed information on 214,000 offshore companies serviced by the Panamanian Law Firm, Mossack Fonesca. The document exposed how world leaders and wealthy individuals hide money in secret offshore tax shelters. The release of the documents renewed proposals for laws banning the use of offshore accounts and tax havens. The Australian Tax Office identified more than 800 individuals who were using the law firms services. Proponents of the of the ban argue they should be outlawed because they have a long history of being vehicles for tax evasion, money laundering, illicit arms dealing and funding terrorism. Opponents of the ban argue that punitive regulations will make it harder for Austrian companies to compete and will further discourage businesses from locating and investing in the United States.
Countries including Ireland, Scotland, Japan, and Sweden are experimenting with a four-day workweek, which requires employers to provide overtime pay to employees working more than 32 hours per week.
In October 2015, Education Minister Simon Birmingham revealed a proposal that would cut funding to universities and deregulate the fees that they charge students. The Parliamentary Budget Office estimated that tuition fees would increase by 40% if universities were allowed to set them without government regulation. Proponents, including Mr. Birmingham, argue that the cost of university funding has grown at twice the rate of the economy since 2009. Opponents argue that the PBO’s estimate of 40% is too low and tuition fees will easily double or triple if the government ceases to regulate them.
In 2016, Prime Minster Turnbull suggested that education funding should shift from the federal government to the states if they are able to raise more revenue under his proposed tax plan. The plan was opposed by the Labor and Green parties who argued that it would abandon the need-based funding reforms put in place after the Gonski report was released in 2012. Without federal funding, they argued, states with economically disadvantaged students would fall further behind. Proponent argue that the Department of Education is too large and states would do a better job of managing schools.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Australia 30% of high school students are enrolled in private schools. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since 2010, the government has tested an initiative in Western Australia called the Independent Public School (IPS) Initiative. The federal government has shown interest in rolling out the IPS initiative nationwide.
In 2014 the Australian government passed the National Security Amendment bill which granted new surveillance powers to Australia's spy agency, ASIO. Under the legislation, which passed the lower house with support from the main opposition Labor Party, anyone disclosing information about "special intelligence operations" could face a decade in prison.
Recreational use of illicit drugs including marijuana, cocaine and heroin is currently illegal in Australia. In 1985, the federal and state governments adopted a National Drug Strategy which included a pragmatic mixture of prohibition and a stated objective of harm reduction. Between 1998 and 2007 overall illicit drug use declined close to 40%. Amphetamines use declined by 38%; cannabis use fell by close to 50%; and use of heroin dropped by an impressive 75%. In February 2016 parliament amended the Narcotics Drugs Act, and created a national licensing scheme for the controlled cultivation and testing of medical cannabis.