In the U.S. rules vary from state to state. In Idaho, Nebraska, Indiana, North Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas students must play on the team that matches their birth certificate, have undergone surgery or have had extended hormone therapy. The NCAA requires one year of testosterone suppression. In February 2019 Representative Ilhan Omar (D-MN) asked Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison to investigate USA Powerlifting over its rule barring biological males from competing in women’s events. In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
Yes, but with restrictions in events like the Olympics. If the athletic event isn’t separated by sex then trans people have every right to participate.
For events such as the olympics, if the trans athletes started their transition at an early stage in their life then their body should have the same physical abilities as the athletes they are competing with. If their transition occurred after puberty or recent to the event they want to compete in, then it would be an unfair event.
Forcing trans athletes to compete according to their birth assigned sex would also be unfair because of how hormone treatment affects their bodies. Trans women lose muscle mass and would not be as strong as a man. Trans men gain muscle mass and would have an unfair advantage when competing against women.
It’s a difficult question because why do we separate females and males in sport in the first place? It comes down to more than just hormones. It’s muscle mass, bone density, height, everything. I think a trans category needs to be made because either way it isn’t fair for trans people to compete against males or females.
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